A complete project on Film porting is available for free.key points of the project are “Basic of Thin Films, Ideal and Real Thin Films, Formation of Thin Films, Basic Modes of Growth, Crystallographic Structure, Applications of Thin Films, Semiconductor Characteristics and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD),Download complete project file for free.
Executive Summary and Overview of Film Porting Project:
Elements of II-VI group are attracting a great deal of attention because their potential abilities in the wide spectrum optoelectronic devices , high absorption coefficient , high efficiency of radiative recombination and nearly matching band gaps with the visible region of solar spectrum are the root causes of popularity of II-VI group semiconductors. The ZnxCd1-xS band structure has a large energy gap than CdS, this makes the material much more attractive for the fabrication of solar cells. ZnxCd1-xS thin films have been widely used as a wide band gap window material in hetrojunction photovoltaic solar cells and photoconductive devices. The band gap energy of ZnxCd1-xS is controlled by the change of zinc composition in order to suit the material properties with that of absorber material in solar cell. Thin films of ZnxCd1-xS have been developed by various techniques, among which thermal evaporation has been considered the best technique. Thermal evaporation technique is simple and cheap. It has less substrate surface damage and provides a high vacuum path. UV-VIS studies revealed that as the concentration of zinc content increases transmittance and band gap also increases.
1.1 Introduction Thin film science and technology plays a crucial role in the high technology industries. Thin films are crystalline or non-crystalline materials developed two dimensionally on a substrate’s surface by physical or chemical methods. Thin films as a specialized technology have come to refer to layer deposited by some type of atom by atom process. Major exploitation of thin films have been in micro electronics, communications, optic electronics and coating of all kinds . The demand for development of smaller and smaller devices with higher speed especially in new generation of integrated circuits requires advanced materials and new processing techniques suitable for future. In this regard, physics and technology of thin films can play an important role to achieve this goal . The production of thin films for device purposes has been developed over the past 40 years. The coating on thin metallic film on glass or plastic was among the first one to be founded for optical properties . The beginning of “Thin Film Science” can possibly be traced to the observations of Grove  who noted that metal films were formed by sputtering of cathodes with high energy positive ions. In 1650, R. Boyle, R. Hook, Isac Newton observed and interpreted the interference patterns (e. g. oil on water). In 1850, first deposition technique was developed by M. Faraday, W. Grove, and T. A. Edison. In 1940, industrial manufacturing of coatings for optical, electronical and mechanical applications was developed for military intensions. In1990, superconducting thin films of high critical temperature was developed. In 2000, manufacturing of nanocrystalline materials with definedsition and structure used for applications as protective coatings and in tribology. In 2004, ternary and quaternary material systems were found. In 2006, searching of organic coatings is the founder of organic electronics . 2 Thin film technology depends on three foundations: fabrication, characterization and applications. Rapid progress in thin film technology has been made for the advance development of highly integrated electronic circuits.