The United Nations Convention against Corruption has stated that “Corruption is no longer a local matter but a trans-national phenomenon that affects all societies and economies.According to Transparency International Corruption Perception’s Index 2010, Pakistan occupies 143 position out of 178.Complete Research Work file (PDF) on Corruption in Pakistan Is Available for Download.
Summary of Corruption in Pakistan:
The culture of corruption was promoted by the administration of colonial era through the award of lands, titles and jobs to a specific group supporting colonial objectives as part of political bribery. Till the Second World War, corruption was prevalent in considerable measure among Revenue, Police, Excise and Public Works Department officials, particularly of the lower grades while the higher ranks were comparatively free from this evil. By the time of Independence in 1947, increase in corruption by public officials became much noticeable. In Pakistan, white-collar crime had its roots in the 1950’s, starting from settlement of refugee claims, industrial sanctions, allotment of agricultural lands etc; all used as mechanics of money making, giving rise to rampant corruption. The role of money in politics of Pakistan has brought in a new class of wealthy public office holders who have constantly strived for saving their business interests at the cost of National economic advantage.
Despite important government reforms in a number of areas of governance, the underlying conditions for corruption persist. The challenge is to understand why, when faced with temptation, officials engage in corruption, and why the public often colludes? At the individual level, corruption results from need or greed combined with opportunity, when there is low fear of detection or punishment. The need or greed element of corruption must be understood in its wider context, by which the system fails to provide a viable alternative to corruption. Key factors include:
(i) Economic: Inadequate pay, pensions and public service provisions teetering under the burden of large families.
(ii) Social/ cultural: Conflict between demands of modern bureaucracy and demands of baradri, family, ethnic and other ties; social pressures for ostentatious demonstration of wealth, dowry and to provide for one’s children.
(iii) Developmental: Low rates of literacy, social empowerment and opportunities for self-improvement: Inequitable distribution of wealth and economic growth.
(iv) Political: The feudal power structure, at the rural level; low levels of political competition: political instability, and intermittent military rule, have weakened institutions; with poor example set by politicians.
(v) Legal and Judicial: Justice is inaccessible, slow and selective, encouraging contempt for the law and an attitude of everyone for oneself.
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