Use of DNA as evidence in the criminal justice system is basically based on Locard’s Exchange Principle proposed by French Professor Dr Edmond Locard (1877-1966), known as father of the crime lab, which states “Every contact leaves a trace”.Complete Research file PDF is available for download.
Summary of DNA as Evidence in Criminal Justice System:
Crimes in all societies are detestable and Law Enforcement Agencies are haunting the wrongdoers and trying to find best and most accurate ways to convict the real perpetrators while protecting the innocents. The police, investigators and detectives try to find and utilize all available evidences found at the crime scenes. These evidences include eye witnesses, snitches, biological evidence, finger prints, digital evidence and all other possible evidence which one can imagine. All these sort of evidences have their established role in the criminal justice system. However, biological evidences especial DNA recovered from a crime scene are considered the most authentic source of evidence due to its higher power of discrimination. DNA is the blue print of life; unique to each individual except identical twin. Further, DNA is the preferred evidence due to its stability even in the harsh environmental conditions and universal acceptability throughout the globe judicial and criminal justice system.
Prior to the 1900s, criminal investigations mostly relied upon interactions of people, informants, interviews and interrogations. However, now scientific knowledge and technologies are used to serve as witnesses in both criminal and civil (intelligence) matters. Science may not offer definitive solutions for all scenarios; it does provide a special investigative role. Use of DNA as evidence in the criminal justice system is basically based on Locard’s Exchange Principle proposed by French Professor Dr Edmond Locard (1877-1966), known as father of the crime lab, which states “Every contact leaves a trace”. Forensic DNA analysis now has a prominent role in almost all criminal investigations. It has shaped the world of justice, fuelling crime investigations and signifying the progress of modern technology. It provides accurate, thorough info to decision makers in our criminal justice system. Speedy DNA analysis enables police and law enforcement agencies to identify and arrest a suspect in a very short period of time. DNA in the criminal justice system has played a revolutionary role due to its uniqueness to individual, except identical twin, stability in the insulting crime scene environment, easy to analyze and compare with the piece of evidence recovered from the crime scene and universal acceptability. While DNA testing was initially introduced into the criminal justice system as a method of developing supplemental evidence to be used in convicting the guilty or exonerating the innocent, in the last twenty five years this has been changed.
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